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Chromatic Harmonies
Dominant Seventh Chord
Harmonic Progression
How to Teach Macro Analysis
Introduction to the Macro Technique
Leading Tone Seventh Chords
More to think about
Nondominant Seventh Chords
Secondary Dominants


Macro analysis can be a very helpful tool in identifying modulation. By using the following strategy it may be easier to determine if a modulation exists.

For any section of music to be analyzed:

  1. Complete the ENTIRE section or piece with the letter names first, before writing down even one roman numeral.
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  2. After completing the letter names, go back and read through the analysis. The letter names, representing either major, minor, augmented, or diminished chords, may follow what would be expected in the key. However, pay particular attention to places where the letters change from the established pattern set up at the beginning of the piece, especially at the ends of phrases. In this example, the V chord is represented by the letter Bb. When this chord appears as a minor rather than major triad later in the example, it is an indication of a modulation.
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  3. Once a modulation is identified, scan around that area to determine where the modulation begins and ends. Go backward as well as forward on the score. Especially when the music modulates to a closely related key, the modulation may not be readily apparent until a cadence in the new key. In order to determine where the modulation begins, look backwards from that cadence.
  4. Complete slurs, roman numerals and inversions.
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